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Kaveri River Agreement

The sharing of the waters of the Kaveri River is the source of a serious conflict between the two states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The birth of this conflict was based on two agreements reached in 1892 and 1924 between the presidency of Madras and the kingdom of Mysore. The Kaveri River, 802 kilometres long, has 44,000 km2 of basin in Tamil Nadu and 32,000 km2 of basin in Karnataka. [1] The influx of karnataka is 425 TMCft, while the Tamil Nadu influx is 252 TMCft. [2] The 1924 agreement gave the Madra presidency and the Mysore State the right to use excess water from the Cauvery River. 1924: The conflict is about to be resolved, when Mysore and Madras reach an agreement allowing Mysore to build a dam in the village of Kannambadi. The agreement is valid for about 50 years and is subsequently reviewed. On the basis of this agreement, Karnataka built the Krishnaraja Sagar dam. While discussions were continuing, a Cauvery Fact Finding Committee (CFFC) was formed. The CFFC`s mission was to inspect soil realities and report. The CFFC submitted a preliminary report in 1972 and a final report in 1973. On the basis of this report, intergovernmental discussions have taken place.

Finally, in 1974, the Ministry of Irrigation developed a draft agreement that also provided for the creation of a Cauvery Valley Authority. However, this project has not been ratified. Initially, the government left the two states to reach an agreement between them, but as soon as it seemed impossible, an arbitration tribunal chaired by Sir Henry Griffin was appointed to investigate the case. It was under this same direction that an agreement was drawn up on 18 February 1924 and was to apply for the next 50 years. Based on watershed water data from 1934 to 1971, the Tribunal estimated the average water yield across the watershed at 767 CMT, a reliability of 47%. The available living storage capacity in the watershed is close to 310 TMC, or 40.5% of the average yield. The water used in the Cauvery Delta in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry is nearly 280 TMC, which represents the final water consumption in the watershed and its regenerated water goes either to the sea or outside the Cauvery Basin. [23] The total load of the basin is nearly 3.5 million tonnes per year. The estimated salt content or total dissolved salts (TDS) for water available in the Cauvery Delta is 441 ppm, which is close to the maximum 500 ppm of safety allowed.

[24] [25] [26] The court has no limit on groundwater consumption in the watershed. The court also allowed basin states to use all surplus water available for normal water years. In addition, the watershed population reached 40 million in 2015 and the increase in the number of inorganic salts per capita in industry, agriculture and housing increases the demand for salt exports. [4] [27] In the absence of sufficient salt exports from the basin to the sea by forcing the Cauvery Delta to expect water shortages, the quality of water available for the Cauvery Delta (salin, pH, alcoality, solubility, etc.) would deteriorate beyond the permitted limits that hinder its sustainable productivity and the maintenance of the aquatic ecosystem. [28] [29] [30] Finally, the criteria for salt export are the limitation of the development of water resources in a watershed. At the time, the Madras presidency had opposed the construction of the krs dam. However, when the agreement was signed, Madras had the freedom to build the Mettur Dam. The Cauvery is a multi-year river that flows into Karnataka and crosses Tamil Nadu to Puducherry.