The immediate result of the 1971 war between India and Pakistan was the change of government in Pakistan and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, leader of the majority party in West Pakistan, took power on December 20, 1971. The 1971 war led to the dismemberment of East Pakistan. Pakistan had lost nearly 54 percent of its population and 93,000 of its soldiers and civilians were held by India. Therefore, the first challenges of the new government were to resolve the state of emergency and resolve the prisoners of war problem as quickly as possible. After the war, India and Pakistan were in direct contact through diplomatic channels and both recognized the need to start negotiations. From 12 January 1972 to 30 April 1972, the two countries showed their propensity for dialogue through press releases and open discussions at the first level. Finally, it was agreed that talks between the President of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, and Indra Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, would begin on 28 June 1972. The two ministers invoked the 1972 Shimla Agreement and said bilateral issues could only be resolved with his help – and nothing else. Six months after the liberation of Bangladesh, then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and former Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto met in Shimla on July 2, 1972 to sign an agreement providing a framework for the mutual settlement of their differences. (iii) Resignations shall commence from the entry into force of this Agreement and shall be concluded within thirty days.  The Simla or Shimla Agreement was signed on July 3, 1972 in Shimla, capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, between India and Pakistan.  It was followed by the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, which led to the independence of Bangladesh, formerly known as East Pakistan and part of the territory of Pakistan.
India entered the war as an ally of Bangladesh, turning the war into the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971.  On July 2, 1972, former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed the Shimla Agreement with then Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Simla Agreement on bilateral relations between India and Pakistan, signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the President of Pakistan, for example, Mr Bhutto, in Simla on 2 July 1972. The agreement emphasizes respect for each other`s sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and the flaw in hostile propaganda. The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating into armed conflict, most recently during the 1999 Kargil war. In Operation Meghdoot in 1984, India seized the entire inhospitable Siachen Glacier region, where the border was not clearly defined in the agreement (perhaps because the area was deemed too arid to be controversial); This was considered by Pakistan as a violation of the Simla agreement. Most of the deaths that followed in the Siachen conflict suffered from natural disasters, for example.B. avalanches in 2010, 2012 and 2016. . .